This paper presents a blockchain-enabled data sharing framework for latency-sensitive applications. To ensure an improved throughput while reducing the overall latency, we propose a parallel validation-based reputation-enhanced practical Byzantine fault tolerance consensus framework with a priority-based block appending process to avoid forking attacks. The proposed framework allows multiple simultaneous validation processes thereby improving the overall performance of the data sharing system while ensuring that important requirements of the blockchain-enabled framework such as security and decentralization are not compromised. Furthermore, we formulate the communication process among validators and their computation resource allocation as a Markov decision process to optimize the transaction throughput while reducing the overall latency. We then adopt the branching dueling Q-network approach to address the large dimensions action space issue in our formulated problem and obtain simulation results to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. The results show that the proposed framework can significantly improve the performance of blockchain-enabled data sharing by ensuring higher throughput and lower latency while maintaining an acceptable level of security among the validating nodes.